The urologist usually recommends prostate biopsy if results from screening tests ch as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test or DRE point towards the patient suffering from prostate cancer. The tissue samples are then analyzed for cell abnormalities and evaluating its ability to spread and then determining the best treatment options available.
Initial preparation for biopsy involves implementing suggestions made by urologist including: Urine analysis to rule out urinary tract infection, since biopsy is not performed when the patient is suffering from any infection. Checking your medication routine and stopping any anticoagulants or drugs that may lead to increased chances of bleeding. Once the procedure is confirmed, it is advised to do a cleansing enema at home and take antibiotics before the procedure to decrease the risk of increase infection.
There are two types of biopsies that are usually done in prostate cancer patients:
Transrectal biopsy – It involves passing the needle through the wall of the rectum and is one of the most commonly preferred methods. The procedure involves patient to lie on his side with knees pulled inwards. The rectal area is cleaned up and insertion of a thin ultrasound probe into it to assess areas whose tissue needs to be removed. This area is usually numbed and biopsy device is positioned there. Thin cylindrical sections of tissue are then removed using a spring loaded needle. The procedure is brief yet discomforting whenever the needle withdraws sample tissues. The doctor may collect 10-12 samples from varied location and the procedure lasts around 10 minutes.
Transperineal biopsy: It involves inserting the needle through the area of skin between the anus and scrotum. It is a highly specialized procedure and may involve putting a small incision in the area of skin between the anus and the scrotum. The biopsy needle then is passed through the cut and a sample of tissue is taken out to assess presence of cancerous growth. The procedure is usually assisted by an MRI or CT scan.
Post Prostate Biopsy
Once the surgery is carried out, the doctor would advise the patient to restrict his activities and may prescribe few antibiotics to keep infection under check. The patient might feel some soreness and light bleeding from the rectum and as well blood in urine and stools. This will eventually wean off and can be considered routine. The patient might need medical attention if you have developed fever and bleeding has gone worse, or is facing difficulty in urinating.
Read more about Prostate Cancer Risk Factors