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When any part of an organ bursts through an opening or a tissue that was meant to keep it in place, the condition is called hernia. Hernia is commonly seen in geriatric mass but can occur at any age.
Abdomen wall is the most prone region for hernia. When the abdominal wall wears down or tears, hernia develops. Hernia can also develop in groin area, umbilical area and femoral area.
The main causes of hernia are
Depending on where the hernia has developed, it can be categorized into
Inguinal Hernia: Occurs when the intestines protrude through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall. It is the most common type of hernia.
Umbilical Hernia: Occurs in infants if their intestines protrude through the abdominal wall close to the umbilicus. This type of hernia may be caused due to a birth defect in diaphragm, obesity or pregnancy.
Incisional Hernia: Occurs post abdominal surgery, when the hernia protrudes from the sutured incision. This type of hernia may occur months or years after surgery.
Hiatal Hernia: Occurs when the diaphragm is protruded through by a part of the stomach into the chest. It is mostly observed among people who have an age of 50 years or less.
Femoral Hernia: Occurs mostly in women due to weakness in femoral canal near the groin.
Indications of Hernia include
When the bulge in the abdomen is pressed and it flattens, it means the tissues are not trapped in the hernia. The patient needs prompt attention and medication. However, when the bulge does not flatten, it means the affected tissues get trapped in the hernial sack. The patient is a candidate for the hernia repair surgery.
A week before the surgery the following steps should be taken:
A day before the surgery, laxative might be taken to cleanse your intestine.
Based on the position and the complexity of the hernia the method of surgery is decided.
Depending on the type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) and medical condition, the patient is allowed to go home in 1 to 2 days. The doctor will recommend
The patient may have to visit the doctor again for a follow-up consultation.
Light physical activity can be resumed after 2 to 3 weeks from surgery.
Although rare, there may be some risks involved with hernia repair surgery. Commonly known are