In the procedure of colon surgery, a GI surgeon may remove parts of the colon, lymph nodes, etc from your intestines, cut away tumors which are obstructing the bowel, join the different parts to each together or create an opening outside the body to ease your problem. The type of surgery conducted would depend upon your colon's condition and should be discussed with your doctor extensively.
At first, you will be taken to the preparatory room where your blood pressure and other medications will be monitored. You will be given anesthesia to help you relax your mind and body and to put you in a sleep-like state.
There are different types of colectomies, some of them are given as under:
Open colectomy – In this type of surgery, your surgeon creates a big incision in your stomach to access the colon. He then frees it from the surrounding tissues and cuts it entirely or in part, depending on your condition.
Laparoscopic colectomy – In this type of surgery, the doctor will make several small incisions in your abdomen. He will then pass a laparoscope ( a thin tube with a camera at the end) through one of the incisions. The surgeon will watch the insides of your colon on a video screen and using special tools free it up from the surrounding tissue and makes the necessary repairs. Once repairs are made to the colon, the surgeon will reinsert the colon through the incision.
Once the colon has been repaired or removed, your surgeon will follow any of the following procedures to allow your waste to expel out. Options may include:
Joining the remaining portions of your colon together - The surgeon may stitch the remaining portions of your colon together. Stool then leaves your body as before.
Connecting your intestine to an opening created in your abdomen- The surgeon may attach your colon to an opening created in your abdomen. This procedure is also known as colostomy. The waste then leaves your body through this opening.
You may wear a bag on the outside of the stoma to collect stool. This can be permanent or temporary.
Connecting the small intestine to anus – The doctor may even directly connect the small intestine to the anus. Depending on your condition, the surgeon will choose the suitable option.
Your surgeon will discuss your options with you before your operation.