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Aortic Valve Stenosis or Aortic Stenosis occurs when the heart’s aortic valves narrow, preventing the valve from opening fully, thereby reducing the blood flow from the heart to the main artery to your body (aorta) and to the rest of the body. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels.

When the blood flow through the aortic valve is blocked, your heart requires to work harder in order to pump blood thoroughly. Although this extra work limits the blood pumping process which weakens your blood vessels. The treatment depends on your body condition. If the condition is left untreated, can lead to severe heart problems.


 

Your heart contains 4 valves.

Heart Valves control the direction of blood flow in your body.

Opening of Aortic Valve is based on the pumping of blood.

The Aortic valve is on the left side of your heart and opens when the blood is pumped from your heart to the rest of your body.

Aortic stenosis can strain your body in different ways.

Aortic stenosis puts excess strain on your heart and can affect your blood circulation resulting in breathlessness, swollen ankles, chest pain, dizziness, and, sometimes, blackouts as well.

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Stages of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

In India, valve disease is approximately 2.8%. out of which 0.4% have aortic stenosis. It is prevalent in patients with more than 75 years old for 3.0% cases. It is one of the most common heart diseases in the elderly and increases with age.

  • Mild:  Aortic stenosis might not affect your health immediately. Mild cases may sometimes not even notice any symptoms. As your aortic valve’s opening gradually starts to shrink with this condition, the heart muscle picks up the slack. It can take several years to affect your heart muscles. This is examined through different heart tests. Symptoms include abnormal sounds in heartbeats.

  • Moderate: The more advanced case of aortic stenosis may still not show any symptoms. Or, one can start to feel the effects of a smaller aortic valve opening and the strain that’s putting on your heart.

  • Severe: Aortic valve opening may end up going huge which ultimately wears and tears on your heart. If your aortic stenosis is severe it requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, severe aortic stenosis can lead to grave situations like heart failure. Fatigue, breathlessness, heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias), swelling of your ankles and feet, sudden death are all signs of severity. Still, some adults may have a severe case without any symptoms. The only warning you may have is a low energy level during physical activity. It is called as asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis

Aortic stenosis symptoms vary according to the age group. These symptoms develop when your valve starts narrowing down. Also, sometimes these symptoms do not reflect for years. Signs for Aortic Stenosis include.

  • Heart palpitations - Fluttering Sensations
  • Shortness of breath
  • Abnormal heart sounds
  • Swollen Ankles
  • Unexpected Weightloss
  • Fatigue

TAVR - Procedure

A balloon catheter is inserted into the artery through either your groin or underneath your collarbone. There might be other approaches used by the doctor. The balloon catheter is guided into your heart and kept within the opening of the aortic valve and gently inflated to open the valve. A new aortic valve using a metal mesh tube is implanted which keeps the valve in place - the new valve will expand by itself or will be expanded using the balloon. The new valve is positioned to push aside your damaged aortic valve. The balloon is deflated, and the doctor removes the balloon catheter.

Complications in TAVR

TAVR has many complications related to it, Some of the complications include

  • Valve Leakage
  • Vessel Damage
  • Death
  • Kidney Damage
  • Stroke

References

Disclaimer

The information provided on this webpage contains general information about medical conditions, causes, symptoms & treatments. The information is compiled from open sources that were available to us and is solely for the purpose of general reading & not a result of thorough research or tests conducted in laboratories. Therefore, the contents of this article are neither medical advice nor intended to replace consultation with a medical practitioner, and should not be treated as an alternative to medical diagnosis or treatment from your doctor, or any other healthcare professional.
External links to information and other websites provided here are purely for information purposes and Credihealth does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy, genuineness, reliability of such links/websites. Moreover, the information provided hereunder is not intended to be a substitute for getting in touch with emergency healthcare.

About

  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels

  • The advantage of this procedure is that it is less invasive and so may reduce the amount of recovery time compared to open heart surgery. TAVI offers the possibility of a new treatment option for people who cannot have surgery

  • The TAVI procedure is usually done by a medical team that includes both a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon.

  • Your doctor will run several tests like angiogram, echocardiogram, other diagnostic tests, to determine the best treatment plan for you and to evaluate if you are a TAVI candidate.

  • General anaesthesia will be required, and the doctor will determine which kind you need

Treatment of Tavr surgery

Treatment for aortic valve stenosis is dependent on the severity of your condition, the signs and symptoms. Surgery options include aortic valve repair, balloon valvuloplasty, aortic valve replacement through TAVI.

 

Symptoms of Tavr surgery

  • Abnormal heart sound

  • Chest pain (angina) or tightness with activity

  • Feeling faint or dizzy, breathlessness, especially when you have been active

  • Fatigue, especially during times of increased activity

  • Heart palpitations (I.e rapid, fluttering heartbeat)

  • Not eating enough or gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis)

 

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Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Heart

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