When any part of an organ bursts through an opening or a tissue that was meant to keep it in place, the condition is called hernia and the surgery performed to repair such medical condition is known as a Hernia Repair Surgery.
When any part of an organ bursts through an opening or a tissue that was meant to keep it in place, the condition is called hernia. Hernia is commonly seen in geriatric mass but can occur at any age.
Abdomen wall is the most prone region for hernia. When the abdominal wall wears down or tears, hernia develops. Hernia can also develop in groin area, umbilical area and femoral area.
The main causes of hernia are
Muscle weakness and physical strain.
Characteristic chronic chough.
Adverse effect of pregnancy.
Any damage to the abdomen caused by an injury.
Severe constipation that causes excessive strain on the abdomen
Lifting heavy weights constantly on a regular basis
Sudden weight gain.
Medical and surgical history of the affected person should be reviewed
Depending on where the hernia has developed, it can be categorized into
Inguinal Hernia: Occurs when the intestines protrude through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall. It is the most common type of hernia.
Umbilical Hernia: Occurs in infants if their intestines protrude through the abdominal wall close to the umbilicus. This type of hernia may be caused due to a birth defect in diaphragm, obesity or pregnancy.
Incisional Hernia: Occurs post abdominal surgery, when the hernia protrudes from the sutured incision. This type of hernia may occur months or years after surgery.
Hiatal Hernia: Occurs when the diaphragm is protruded through by a part of the stomach into the chest. It is mostly observed among people who have an age of 50 years or less.
Femoral Hernia: Occurs mostly in women due to weakness in femoral canal near the groin.
Bulge near the abdominal area is the most common sign of hernia.
Discomfort and pain while performing physical activites, coughing or sneezing
Pain while urination or bowel movements
Pressure in groin area
Standing for long time causes pain in abdomen or groin area
When the bulge in the abdomen is pressed and it flattens, it means the tissues are not trapped in the hernia. The patient needs prompt attention and medication. However, when the bulge does not flatten, it means the affected tissues get trapped in the hernial sack. The patient is a candidate for the hernia repair surgery.
A week before the surgery the following steps should be taken:
Aspirin intake should be stopped
Smoking should be avoided
Physical activity or strain should be avoided
A day before the surgery, laxative might be taken to cleanse your intestine.
Based on the position and the complexity of the hernia the method of surgery is decided. Open surgery
An incision is made in the abdomen at the position of the hernia
The Intestine are brought back to their original place.
A mesh can be placed to confine the herniated part to its original place.
Numerous small incisions are made in the abdominal wall adjacent to the hernia
Miniature surgical instruments and cameras are inserted and patch work is done through the cuts after filling the abdomen with carbon dioxide
After the surgery the gas is released and the slits are closed.
Depending on the type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) and medical condition, the patient is allowed to go home in 1 to 2 days. The doctor will recommend
Using an ice pack frequently on the surgical incision
Frequent short walks to advance circulation of blood and to prevent the possibility of blood clots
Avoiding physical activity for at least a week
Keeping a healthy diet and a high intake of water.
The patient may have to visit the doctor again for a follow-up consultation.
Light physical activity can be resumed after 2 to 3 weeks from surgery.
Risk and Complication
Although rare, there may be some risks involved with hernia repair surgery. Commonly known are
High fever around 101 deg F
Problems with urination
Incisions may become excessively red
Swelling beyond normal levels
The cost of hernia surgery in a trusted Indian hospital generally ranges between INR 40,000 to 70,000.
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