When any part of an organ bursts through an opening or a tissue that was meant to keep it in place, the condition is called hernia. Hernia is commonly seen in geriatric mass but can occur at any age.
Abdomen wall is the most prone region for hernia. When the abdominal wall wears down or tears, hernia develops. Hernia can also develop in groin area, umbilical area and femoral area.
The main causes of hernia are
- Muscle weakness and physical strain.
- Congenital defect.
- Characteristic chronic chough.
- Adverse effect of pregnancy.
- Any damage to the abdomen caused by an injury.
- Severe constipation that causes excessive strain on the abdomen
- Lifting heavy weights constantly on a regular basis
- Sudden weight gain.
- Medical and surgical history of the affected person should be reviewed
Depending on where the hernia has developed, it can be categorized into
Inguinal Hernia: Occurs when the intestines protrude through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall. It is the most common type of hernia.
Umbilical Hernia: Occurs in infants if their intestines protrude through the abdominal wall close to the umbilicus. This type of hernia may be caused due to a birth defect in diaphragm, obesity or pregnancy.
Incisional Hernia: Occurs post abdominal surgery, when the hernia protrudes from the sutured incision. This type of hernia may occur months or years after surgery.
Hiatal Hernia: Occurs when the diaphragm is protruded through by a part of the stomach into the chest. It is mostly observed among people who have an age of 50 years or less.
Femoral Hernia: Occurs mostly in women due to weakness in femoral canal near the groin.