Insulin is the sugar controlling hormone in human bodies, created by the beta cells at islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The hormone is endocrinal in nature and controls blood sugar levels by acting as signals asking cells to take up blood glucose. Insulin binds with blood glucose and facilitates their absorption in cells. The regulatory action of insulin is characterized by its inhibiting metabolic processes that take up or create glucose in the blood, to avoid conditions of excess blood glucose counts which is also known as hyperglycaemia and deficient blood glucose count, which is also known as hypoglycaemia in the body.
There are four different types of artificially synthesized insulin that are available for diabetes treatment and are therapeutic:
They are as follows:
1. Rapid Acting: These start action in the first fifteen minutes after injection and reach a peak after approximately an hour. They continue to work after the peak for two to four hours. They are taken before meal and/or in addition to existing dose of long-acting insulin.
2. Short Acting: These types start working approximately after 30 minutes post-injection and reach a peak at around 2 to 3 hours. The insulin continues to work after attaining peak activity for three to six hours. The insulin is given before a meal and often as an addition to existing dose of long-acting insulin.
3. Intermediate Acting: This type of insulin is cost-efficient since it starts working around 2 to 4 hours post-injection and reaches a peak around 4 to 12 hours later. The intermediate acting insulin stays active after reaching peak activity for around 12-18 hours. This is prescribed twice a day and sometimes in addition to short- or rapid-acting insulin doses.
4. Long Acting: This begins to work after several hours post-injection and can work for around 24 hours. Rapid- or short-acting insulin doses are often prescribed along with long acting insulin doses.