Weight loss surgery, also known as bariatric surgery is performed on obese people. The size of the stomach is reduced by removing a portion of the stomach.
As a result of this surgery, two things happen.
- The capacity of the small intestines to absorb nutrients is reduced.
- There is also a major reduction in the capacity of the stomach to hold food.
Weight loss surgeries can be broadly classified into restrictive and mal-absorptive surgeries. Restrictive surgeries shrink the stomach size while the latter reduce the capacity of the intestine to absorb nutrients. These can be further classified into:
Adjustable Gastric banding: An inflatable balloon is placed around the upper part of the stomach and it helps restrict the amount of food that can be held.
Sleeve Gastrectomy: A large portion of the stomach is removed. It can be followed up by a second surgery, if required. It is a comparatively safer option for the obese.
Gastric Bypass Surgery: A combination of restrictive and mal absorptive procedures, it connects the upper stomach into the lower part of the small intestine, thereby reducing chances of intake and absorption.
Biliopancreatic Diversion: An extreme form of gastric bypass surgery where as much as 70% of the stomach is removed and bypassing is done.