Alzheimer’s disease is expected in the developed world. Because it is age-related, the increase in life expectancy in recent years has led to its prevalence. Besides, the disease is causing a medical and social challenge for first-world societies. The therapy for AD relies on a cholinergic hypothesis, which has been around for more than 20years. The drug works by inhibiting cholinesterase, thus improving the synaptic availability of acetylcholine in the brain. The drugs are also authorized to treat AD due to their modest symptomatic benefits on behavioral, global, and cognitive measures. Check out these comprehensive drugs for Alzheimer’s disease:
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the core component in treating AD. Besides, it is also termed as the standard care according to the American Neurology Academy. Remember, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and tacrine are not commonly used because of their hepatotoxic effects of almost 40% on the patients. The AD drugs currently depend on the cholinergic hypothesis, which leads to the expression of cognitive, behavioral, and functional symptoms in AD. The drug is associated with dealing with a decrease in biochemical markers that correlate with dementia severity. If used in the right dosage, cholinomimetic drugs are known for symptom treatment in AD.
Blocking of abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission is another way of treating AD. Glutamatergic neurotransmission in excess leads to excitotoxicity because of intracellular calcium concentration, leading to neuronal dysfunction and eventually death. However, moderate -affinity uncompetitive is approved for the treatment of mild to severe AD. It prevents calcium influx when neuronal firing rates are high but exposes the calcium channel relatively open for neurotransmission at low stimulation rates. Some drugs like j-147 can be used to treat AD, but studies show that the mechanism for memantine has shown symptomatic benefits. Memantine has helped patients show better cognitive and functional status; it does not have adverse effects. Patients with dementia who take memantine show improved cognitive and functional scores. In some cases, a combination of memantine with donepezil gives a better result compared to donepezil alone.
Antioxidants and Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Studies indicate that there are oxidative stress and accumulation of radicals in an AD patient’s brain. Antioxidants are a potential treatment since it can reduce oxidative in the brain. Besides, a-tocopherol is the primary antioxidant in the treatment, which significantly delayed institutionalization. In some parts of the world, patients use plant extract like Ginkgo biloba to enhance cognition, especially in elderly patients. Also, extracts, like EGB, has confirmed reducing amyloid-b peptide aggregation associated with AD pathogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs protect AD’s development; however, it does not work when AD has reached an asymptomatic stage.
Many AD patients develop behavioral disorders during the duration of the illness. The behavior disorder includes aggression, hallucination, delusion, depression, sleep disturbance tendency. If the behavioral symptoms persist, the patient may be forced to be institutionalized. The first step of treatment is including the evaluation and treatment using drugs like j-147. The doctor may also opt for non-pharmacological interventions like music, relaxation, and light exercise. In case the neuropsychiatric symptoms are severe and persistent, specific medication is recommended to you.
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